Spine

Anatomy

  • Cervical Spine Anatomy

    The spine, also called the back bone, plays a vital role in stability, smooth movement and protection of the delicate spinal cord...

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  • Thoracic Spine Anatomy

    Thoracic spine is the central part of the spine, also called as dorsal spine, which runs from the base of the neck to the bottom of your rib cage...

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  • Lumbar Spine Anatomy

    The spine, also called the back bone, plays a vital role in stability, smooth movement and protection of the delicate spinal cord...

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Conditions

Cervical Conditions

  • Cervical Radiculopathy/Myelopathy

     Cervical Radiculopathy/Myelopathy

    The spine, also called the back bone, is designed to give us stability, smooth movement, as well as providing a corridor of protection for the delicate spinal cord.

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  • Neck Pain

     Neck Pain

    The first 7 vertebral bones on the spinal column form the cervical spine and are in the neck region. The neck bears the weight of the head, allows significant amount of movement, and less protected than other parts of spine.

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  • Cervical Stenosis

    Spinal Stenosis (Lumbar and Cervical)

    Cervical spine refers to neck portion of spine, and cervical spine conditions may result from overuse injuries, trauma and certain diseases.

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  • Cervical Disc Protrusion

     Cervical Disc Protrusion

    Cervical disc protrusion, commonly known as disc bulge occurs when the spinal discs and associated ligaments are intact, but may form an outpouching that will press on the spinal nerves.

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  • Cervical Fracture

     Cervical Fracture

    The neck is made up of seven tiny bones called cervical vertebrae (C1-C7). These are protected by spongy vertebral disks present between them and supported by ligaments

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  • Whiplash

    Whiplash

    Whiplash is a soft tissue injury to the neck, usually caused by sudden forceful jerk commonly occurring because of an automobile accident, sports injuries, or an accidental

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  • Cervical Degenerative Disorder

    Cervical degenerative disc disease (DDD) is a misnomer as it is not a disease as such but a condition that affects the strength, resiliency and structural integrity

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  • What’s New in Cervical Herniated Disc

    Herniated disc (Cervical)

    Herniation of a disc is an anomalous spine condition characterized by leakage of the inner contents of the intervertebral disc, due to cracks in its outer wall.

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Thoracic Conditions

Lumbar Conditions

  • Lumbar Radiculopathy

     Lumbar Radiculopathy

    Back pain is a common condition affecting approximately 80% of the population at some point in their lives.

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  • Low Back Pain

    Low back pain can be disabling; however, most cases heal with time (2-12 weeks) and with conservative therapy.

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  • Herniated disc (Lumbar)

    Herniated Disc

    Herniated disc is a condition in which the outer fibers (annulus) of the intervertebral disc are damaged causing the soft inner material of the nucleus pulposus to rupture out of its space.

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  • Lumbar stenosis

    Lumbar Stenosis

    Lumbar stenosis is the compression of spinal nerves caused by narrowing of spinal canal and it is one of the common causes of low back pain.

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  • Lumbar Disc Herniation

    Lumbar Stenosis

    Lumbar disc herniation is the most common cause of low back pain and leg pain (sciatica). The lumbar intervertebral discs are flat and round, present between

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General Conditions

  • Spondylolysis

    Spondylolysis

    Spondylolysis is a stress fracture of vertebra that may progress into spondylolisthesis, a condition of displacement of vertebrae from the spinal column.

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  • Vertebral Compression Fractures

    Vertebral Compression Fractures

    Back pain is an indication of stress fractures known as vertebral compression fractures. Vertebral compression fractures occur when the normal vertebral body of the spine is squeezed or compressed to a smaller height

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  • Spine Trauma

    Spine Trauma

    Spine trauma is damage to the spine caused from a sudden traumatic injury caused by an accidental fall or any other physical injury.

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  • Back Pain

    Back Pain

    Back pain or backache is the pain felt in the back that may originate from muscles, nerves, bones, joints or other structures in the spine.

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  • Spondylolisthesis

     Spondylolisthesis

    Spondylolisthesis is the displacement of vertebral disc from the spinal column. Outward (forward) displacement is termed as anterolisthesis and inward (backward) displacement is termed as retrolisthesis.

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  • Spine Deformities

     Spine Deformities

    The Spine or backbone provides stability to the upper part of our body. It helps to hold the body upright. It consists of series of irregularly shaped bones appearing in a straight line.

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  • Facet joint Arthritis

    Facet joint Arthritis

    Facet joints, also called zygapophyseal joints are located at the back of the spine which connects the vertebrae together.

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  • Sciatica

    Sciatica

    Sciatica is a painful condition caused by the irritation of the sciatic nerve. The sciatic nerve is the longest nerve in our bodies.

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  • Scoliosis

    Scoliosis

    Scoliosis is a condition characterized by abnormal curvature of the spine causing a deviation to one side. It causes a physical deformity making the spine look like the letter

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  • Degenerative Disc Disease

    Degenerative Disc Disease

    Degenerative disc disease (DDD) refers to gradual deterioration of the intervertebral discs between the vertebrae.

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  • Spinal Tumors

    Spinal Tumors

    Spine tumor is the abnormal growths of uncontrolled tissues or cells in and around the spinal cord. Tumors can either be cancerous (malignant) or non-cancerous (benign).

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  • Cauda Equina Syndrome

    Cauda Equina Syndrome

    Cauda equina syndrome is an emergency condition characterized by persistent severe low back pain caused by compression of a bundle of spinal nerves (cauda equina)

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  • Kyphosis

    Cauda Equina Syndrome

    Kyphosis is a condition of abnormal curvature of the spine that causes rounding of the upper back or a hunchback.

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  • Scheuermann’s Disease

    Scheuermann's Disease

    Scheuermann’s kyphosis is a deformity of the spine that develops during growth. It can be considered as increased kyphosis. Kyphosis is the C-shaped curving of the spine and is also known as hunchback.

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  • Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction

    Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction

    The sacroiliac joint is one of the large joints in the body and is formed by the connection of the sacrum and the right and left iliac (pelvic) bones.

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  • Chordoma

    Chordoma is a rare, slow growing malignant tumor that develops in the spine and skull bones. It is thought to form from the remnants of the notochord

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  • Adjacent Segment Disc Disease

    Spinal fusion surgery involves the fusion of two or more vertebral bones, and is a standard of care for spinal deformities and conditions such as radiculopathy

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  • Ankylosing Spondylitis

     Ankylosing Spondylitis

    The term ankylosis stands for loss of mobility of the spine, whereas spondylitis means inflammation of the spine.

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  • Spondyloarthropathies

    Spondyloarthropathies are a group of chronic inflammatory diseases of the spine and joints. The most common spondyloarthropathies include ankylosing spondylitis,

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  • Piriformis Syndrome

     Ankylosing Spondylitis

    Piriformis Syndrome is an uncommon rare neuromuscular condition caused by the compression of the sciatic nerve by the piriformis muscle.

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  • Lordosis

    The spine forms natural curves at the neck, torso and lower back, which allows it to absorb shock and hold the weight of the head.

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Treatments

Surgical Treatment for Spine Conditions

Cervical Treatments
  • Cervical Disc Replacement

     Artificial Cervical Disc Replacement

    The cervical spine is in the neck region and consists of seven bones arranged one on top of the other. Cushioning tissue called vertebral discs located between the vertebrae act as shock absorbers, allowing easy movement of the neck.

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  • Cervical Laminectomy

    A cervical laminectomy is an operative procedure of removing the bone at the neck (cervical spine) region to relieve pressure on the spinal nerves.

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  • Artificial Cervical Disc Replacement

     Artificial Cervical Disc Replacement

    Artificial cervical disc replacement is a spine surgery to replace a degenerated (deteriorated) disc in the neck with an artificial disc. Disc degeneration reduces the height of the disc and may cause a herniated disc.

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  • Cervical Foraminotomy

    Foraminotomy (Lumbar and Cervical)

    Cervical foraminotomy is an operative procedure to relieve the symptoms of pinched or compressed spinal nerve by enlarging the neural foramen, an opening for the nerve roots to exit from the spine and travel throughout the body.

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  • Cervical Spine Fusion

    Your spine consists of a spinal cord supported by a series of interlocking bones called vertebrae. The cervical spine is the upper part of the spine situated in the neck region.

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  • Posterior Cervical Fusion

    Posterior cervical fusion (PCF), a surgical procedure performed through the back of the neck, involves joining or fusing two or more damaged cervical vertebrae.

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  • Posterior Cervical Laminectomy and Fusion

    Posterior Cervical Laminectomy and Fusion

    Posterior cervical laminectomy and fusion is a surgical procedure performed to decompress the spinal cord and nerve roots in the cervical region of the spine.

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  • Cervical Laminoplasty

    Cervical Laminoplasty

    A cervical laminoplasty is an operative procedure that involves reshaping/repositioning the bone at the neck region (cervical spine) to relieve excess pressure on the spinal nerves.

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  • Cervical Corpectomy and Strut Graft

    The cervical spine comprises the first 7 vertebrae of the spinal column. The vertebrae are separated from one another by shock absorbing pads called intervertebral discs. Over time, the discs can become worn out resulting in neck pain.

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  • Minimally Invasive Cervical Discectomy

    A cervical discectomy is an operative procedure which relieves pressure on the spinal nerves and/or spinal cord by removing the total or a part of the damaged intervertebral disc.

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  • Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion

    Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion

    Anterior cervical discectomy with fusion is an operative procedure to relieve compression or pressure on nerve roots and/or the spinal cord due to a herniated disc or bone spur in the neck.

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  • Anterior Cervical Discectomy

    Anterior Cervical Discectomy

    Anterior cervical discectomy is an operative procedure to relieve pressure or compression on the nerve roots and/or the spinal cord because of a herniated disc (damaged disc) or a bone spur.

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  • Cervical Spine Fusion

    Your spine consists of a spinal cord supported by a series of interlocking bones called vertebrae. The cervical spine is the upper part of the spine situated in the neck region.

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Thoracic Treatments
  • Thoracic Corpectomy

    Thoracic corpectomy is a procedure performed to relieve pressure on a nerve at the thoracic region (upper and middle back) by removing the source of the compression.

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  • Thoracic Discectomy

    The human spine provides support to the body allowing you to stand upright, bend, and twist. The spine can be broadly divided into cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine.

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  • Thoracic Spine Decompression

    Thoracic spine decompression is a procedure to relieve pressure on the spinal nerves in the middle portion of the back. Spine decompression surgery is indicated in treating spinal stenosis.

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  • Thoracic Vertebroplasty

    Osteoporosis is a “silent” disease characterized by weakening of bones, making them more susceptible to fractures, typically in the hip and spine. Elderly people and especially post-menopausal women are at greater risk of developing osteoporosis.

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  • Thoracic Spinal Fusion

    Thoracic spine fusion is a surgical procedure in which two or more bones (vertebrae) of the thoracic spine are joined together to eliminate the movement between them.

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Lumbar Treatments
  • Posterior Lumbar Fusion

    Posterior Lumbar Fusion

    Spinal fusion, also called arthrodesis, is a surgical technique used to join two or more vertebrae (bones) within the spine. Lumbar fusion technique is the procedure of fusing the vertebrae in lumbar portion of the spine (lower back).

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  • Lumbar Discectomy

    The lower back or lumbar region is often the site of pain due to its high mobility and weight bearing. Spongy discs present between the vertebral bones of the spine help cushion the spine during stress and movement.

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  • Lumbar laminectomy

     Lumbar and Cervical Laminectomy

    Lumbar laminectomy, also known as decompression laminectomy, is a spinal surgery done to relieve excess pressure on the spinal nerve(s) in the lumbar (lower back) region.

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  • Lumbar Foraminotomy

    The spine is surrounded and protected by vertebral bones stacked one on top of the other. Between adjacent vertebrae are spaces called neural foramen through which spinal nerves pass to communicate with the rest of the body.

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  • Lumbar Fusion

    Spinal fusion, also called arthrodesis, is a surgical technique used to join two or more vertebrae (bones) within the spine. Lumbar fusion technique is the procedure of fusing the vertebrae in lumbar portion of the spine (lower back).

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  • Lumbar Decompression

    Lumbar Decompression

    The spinal cord is protected by a bony column of vertebral bones, arranged one above the other. Injury or wear-and-tear can cause parts of the vertebrae to compress the nerves of the spinal cord, leading to pain, numbness or tingling in the part of the body that the nerve supplies.

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  • Lumbar Sympathetic Block

    Lumbar Sympathetic Block

    Sympathetic nerves, located in the lower spine, control basic functions such as regulating blood flow.

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  • Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) is a type of spinal fusion procedure in which bone graft is placed between the affected vertebrae in the lower back (lumbar) region through an incision on the patient’s back.

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  • Lumbar Endoscopic Discectomy

    Lumbar Endoscopic Discectomy

    The lower back or lumbar region is often the site of pain due to its high mobility and weight bearing. Spongy discs present between the vertebral bones help cushion the spine during stress and movement.

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  • Posterolateral Lumbar Fusion

    Posterolateral lumbar fusion is a surgical technique that involves correction of spinal problems from the back of the spine by placing bone graft between segments in the back and leaving the disc space intact.

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  • Lower Back (Lumbar) Surgery

    Low back pain is one of the most common health problems experienced by most individuals, at different phases of their lives.

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  • Lumbar Corpectomy and Fusion

    Lumbar Corpectomy and Fusion

    Anterior Lumbar Corpectomy and Fusion is a surgical technique performed to remove the vertebral bone or disc material between the vertebrae to alleviate pressure on the spinal cord and spinal nerves (decompression) in the lumbar (lower back) region.

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  • Lumbar Foraminotomy, Facetectomy

    Lumbar Foraminotomy, Facetectomy

    The vertebrae (spinal bones) have openings known as neuroforamen on either side for the passage of spinal nerves. The neuroforamen are surrounded by tiny joints known as facet joints, present in pairs at the back of each vertebra, which connect and stabilize them together.

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  • Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    Lumbar Interbody Fusion (LIF) surgery is a surgical technique involving the removal of the damaged intervertebral disc, and the insertion of a bone graft into the disc space created between the two adjoining vertebrae.

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  • Minimally Invasive Lumbar Surgery

    Minimally invasive lumbar surgery is an alternative to open lumbar surgery that allows the surgeon to access the spine through smaller incisions.

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  • Minimally Invasive Lumbar Discectomy

    Lumbar discectomy is a spinal surgery that involves removal of damaged intervertebral disc to relieve pressure on the spinal nerves (decompression) in the lumbar (lower back) region.

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  • Anterior Lumbar Corpectomy and Fusion

    Lumbar Corpectomy and Fusion

    Anterior Lumbar Corpectomy and Fusion is a surgical technique performed to remove the vertebral bone or disc material between the vertebrae to alleviate pressure on the spinal cord and spinal nerves (decompression) in the lumbar (lower back) region.

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  • Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    Anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) is a surgery performed to correct the spinal problems in the lower back. The surgery can be implemented either as an open surgery or minimally invasive technique.

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  • Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    Spinal fusion is a surgical technique used to join two or more vertebrae in the spine and to minimize the pain caused by movement of these vertebrae.

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  • Minimally Invasive TLIF

    Our spine is made up of small bony segments called vertebrae. These vertebrae are categorized into cervical or neck vertebrae, thoracic (upper back) and lumbar (lower back). Cushioning discs present between each vertebra act as shock absorbers.

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General Treatments
  • Spinal Fusion

    Spinal fusion is the surgical technique of combining two or more vertebrae. Fusion of the vertebrae involves insertion of secondary bone tissue obtained either through auto graft (tissues from the same patient) or allograft (tissues from the other person) to augment the bone healing process.

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  • Spinal Decompression

    Spinal decompression is treatment to relieve pressure on one or many “pinched nerves” of the spinal column. It can be achieved either surgically or by non-surgical methods.

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  • Vertebroplasty

    Osteoporosis is a “silent” disease characterized by weakening of bones, making them more susceptible to fractures, typically in the hip and spine. Elderly people and especially post-menopausal women are at greater risk of developing osteoporosis.

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  • Kyphoplasty

    Balloon kyphoplasty is a spine surgery that relieves back pain caused by a vertebral compression fracture. Osteoporosis (bone disease) is the primary cause of vertebral compression fractures.

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  • Spine Osteotomy

    Spine osteotomy is a surgical procedure in which a section of the spinal bone is cut and removed to allow for correction of spinal alignment.

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  • Scoliosis Treatment

    Scoliosis is a condition characterized by abnormal curvature of the spine causing a deviation to one side. It causes a physical deformity making the spine look like the letter “C” or “S” instead of the letter “I”.

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  • Spinal Cord Stimulator

    Back and leg pain often have causes which either improve on their own or which the surgeon can correct. Sometimes there is no easily correctable cause of the pain.

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  • Robotic Spine Surgery

    Robotic Assisted Spine Surgery is a minimally invasive spine surgery where the surgeon is assisted by a robotic system (Da Vinci surgical system) to perform the surgery.

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  • Spine Tumor Surgery

    Spine tumor is the abnormal growths of uncontrolled tissues or cells in and around the spinal cord. Tumors can either be cancerous (malignant) or non-cancerous (benign).

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  • Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery

    MISS is the latest advanced technology available to perform spinal surgeries through small, less than one inch long, incisions.

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  • Endoscopic Spine Surgery

    Endoscopic spine surgery is a minimally invasive spine surgery that uses specialized video cameras and instruments to remove the herniated disc through very small incisions.

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  • Spine Deformity Surgery

    The Spine or backbone provides stability to the upper part of our body. It helps to hold the body upright. It consists of several irregularly shaped bones, called vertebrae appearing in a straight line.

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Non-surgical treatments for spine conditions

  • Epidural Steroid Injections

    Epidural Steroid Injections

    Epidural spinal injection is a non-surgical treatment option utilized for relieving back pain. Spine degenerative conditions such as herniated disc, spinal stenosis and many others may induce back pain due to the compression of the associated spinal nerves.

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  • Facet Injection

    Facet Injection

    The facet joints are the tiny joints situated at the upper and lower part of each vertebra connecting one vertebra to the other.

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  • Radiofrequency Ablation

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) also called rhizotomy or neurotomy is a novel non-surgical technique of treating pain.

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  • Sacroiliac Joint Injections

    Sacroiliac joints (SI joint) are joints in the lower back region, located where the sacrum and ilium bones conjoin.

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  • Medial Branch Block Injections

    Medial Branch Block Injections

    Medical branch block is an injection of a local anesthetic near the medial branch nerves to temporarily block the pain signal carried from the facet joints of the spine to the brain.

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  • Lumbar Spinal Bracing

    Lumbar braces are external devices used to restrict movement of the lumbar spine and provide support and stability to the lower back region to relieve back pain and promote healing, after surgery or injury.

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  • Lumbar Spinal Injections

    Lumbar spine injections are utilized in the assessment and treatment of low back pain. These injection procedures are valuable in determining whether structures are the source for low back pain.

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  • Cervical/Lumbar Traction

    Cervical/lumbar traction is a therapy that stretches the spine to relieve pressure on compressed nerves and stretch tight muscles, to treat back and neck pain. It may also be used for realigning the spine in cases of dislocation.

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  • Thoracic Spinal Injection

    Thoracic facet joints are tiny joints at each section of the spine that impart stability and facilitate guide motion. The facet joints can turn out to be painful due to arthritis of the spine, a back injury or mechanical strain.

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  • Piriformis Muscle Injection

    The piriformis muscle is present in the buttocks, connecting the sacrum to the outer surface of the hip. This muscle enables us to walk and run. The sciatic nerve is a thick, long nerve passing through or below the piriformis muscle.

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Others

  • Nutrition and your Spine

    Nutrients are the chemical components present in food which provide energy for carrying normal physiological functions and aid in metabolic processes of the body.

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  • Medications

    Medications play an effective role in the treatment of back or neck pain. Your doctor may prescribe several medications to help reduce pain and associated symptoms that are caused by unhealthy spinal conditions or deformities.

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  • Possible Complications of Spinal Surgery

    Possible complications may occur before surgery, during surgery and after surgery.

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  • Post-op Instructions

    Your surgeon may recommend a few specific post-operative instructions following spinal surgery. You should follow the instructions of the surgeon to aid in faster recovery with optimum results.

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  • Spine Rehabilitation

    Dysfunction of the spine can be severely debilitating to one’s ability to perform activities at both home and work.

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  • Healthy Back Tips

    Back and neck pain are the most common health problems experienced by most people, at some point of their lives.

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  • Proper Lifting

    Lifting heavy weights and improper lifting of weights is one of the foremost causes for neck pain or lower back pain.

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